About the Author

Academic Biography

  • Doctor of Materials Science, MIT
  • Master of Materials Engineering, RPI
  • Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering, Kettering University


  • "Comprehensive Risk Abatement: A Paradigm Shift," written by invitation as a chapter in the book entitled Research, Practices, and Innovations in Global Risk and Contingency Management, Pub. by IGI Global, Edited by K.D. Strang, M.E. Korstanje and N. Vajjhala, (2018), ISBN 9781522547549, p. 187 - 210.
  • "Comprehensive Risk Abatement Methodology as a Lean Operations Strategy," International Journal of Risk and Contingency Management, 4(1), p. 39-52 (Jan-Mar 2015).
  • "Stress Corrosion Cracking Simulation," Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Physics Publishing, 5, No. 2, p. 129-147 (1997).
  • "Corrosive Amine Characterization," Corrosion 96 - The NACE International Annual Conference and Exposition, Paper No. 394, (1996).
  • "Using Electrochemical Software to Solve Corrosion Control/Materials Performance Problems in the Petroleum Refining Industry," written by invitation as a chapter in the book entitled Current Topics in Electrochemistry, Pub. by Research Trends, Edited by J. C. Alexander, 2, (1993), ISBN 81-85607-53-2, p. 311 - 321.
  • "Improved Outgassing for Hydroprocessing Vessels," Chemical Engineering Communications, 129, (1994) p. 123 - 134.
  • "Science, Logic and the Thinking Christian," Interdisciplinary Biblical Research Institute, Research Report 38, (1990), ISBN 0-944788-38-6.
  • "Mass Transport in Electrochemistry," Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, 172 (1984) p. 1 - 9.
  • "A New Approach for Determining Corrosion Current and Tafel Slopes," Corrosion, 37, 12, (1981) p. 723 - 726.
  • "Selecting an Algicide for Use with Aluminum Alloys," Water Research, 15, (1981) p. 1117 - 1124.
  • "Corrosion of High Ni-Cr Alloys and Type 304L Stainless Steel in HNO3 - HF," Savannah River Laboratory, Report DP-1550, (1980).
  • "Numerical Simulation of Multiconstituent Diffusion and Helium Release Characteristic of the 238PuO2 Heat Source Used in Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators," Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Report LA-6360, (1976).
  • "Protective Coatings for 7079-T6," Sandia Laboratories, Report SLA-73-0594, (1973).
  • "Mathematical Simulation of Stress Corrosion Cracking," Corrosion, 27, 11, (1971) p. 455 - 458.
  • "Influence of Aging Time and Temperature on the Susceptibility of gamma - Quenched U - 5%Nb Alloy to SCC," Corrosion, 28, 1, (1972) p. 35 - 38.
  • "Computer Simulation of Stress Corrosion Cracking," Corrosion, 27, 2, (1971) p. 84 - 90.
  • "Protective Metallic Coatings for gamma - Quenched U-5 wt. % Nb Alloy," Journal of Nuclear Materials, 43 (1972) p. 343 - 346.
  • "The Dynamics and Thermodynamics of Solid-Fluid-Fluid Three-Phase Contact," Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 30, 1 (1969) p. 21 - 33.


  • "Method for Reducing Turnaround Time of Hydroprocessing Units" Patent 5,258,116."
  • "Preparation and Application of Anticorrosive Additive in Amine Systems" Patent 5,472,638.
  • "Water Washing to Remove Salts" Patent 5,656,152.
  • "Intermittent Water Washing to Remove Salts" Patent 5,656,151.

Biographical Summary, Teaching Hints and Academic Sources


Dr. McLaughlin (bruce_mclaughlin@charter.net) is a retired Senior Engineering Associate from a major corporation with accomplishments in materials science R&D. He holds a Doctorate in Materials Science from MIT, a Master of Materials Engineering from RPI and a Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering from Kettering University. With several patents and publications, he has also written, by invitation, chapters in the two books entitled Current Topics in Electrochemistry and Research, Practices and Innovations in Global Risk and Contingency Management.  On retirement, Dr. McLaughlin has retained membership in the following professional organizations:

  • Institute of Physics (MInstP)
  • Association of Consulting Chemists and Chemical Engineers

Dr. McLaughlin has been an Ordained Southern Baptist Minister for 20 years and watched, with dismay, as the SBC purposely jettisoned the theology of Billy Graham.  In 2023, Dr. McLaughlin was doubly ordained as an Elder in the Global Methodist Church.  The GMC is a Christian family guided by Biblical principles faithfully preserved by God inspired men such as James Arminius and John Wesley; the GMC is determined to keep Apostolic Christianity alive and well.

Neither the book on Christian Apologetics, the papers on Genesis Encryption nor the 229 pages of Theology Corner, incorporated into Christian Apologetics | Reason for Hope, are intended for professional publication in any format other than the web.  Their only purpose is to provide specific answers to specific questions regarding what traditional Christians believe and why we believe it.  Some may find these questions and answers to be inconsequential and irrelevant to life; others may find them to reveal the path to salvation!


Utilization of this Website for Teaching


Portions of Apostolic Christianity were insidiously distorted by state sponsored religion from Constantine to Augustine to Calvin.  James Arminius and the Remonstrants initiated a return to truth.  This truth has been maintained through the centuries by such leaders as James Arminius, Simon Episcopius, John Wesley, Richard Watson, Samuel Wakefield, William Burton Pope, John Miley, H. Orton Wiley, Thomas Oden and those, with extraordinary insight, such as Oswald Chambers.  In our time, only a few churches are struggling to keep this truth alive including Wesleyan, Nazarene and the newly formed Global Methodist.  This website is an attempt to help each Christian and Seeker securely buckle the ‘belt of truth’ around their waist. 

Bible Study literature, for Sunday School or Bible Fellowship Groups, comprises a study guide plus auxiliary documents and maps.  The study guide focuses on the Bible’s most significant stories, themes, events, and people.  Historic and cultural settings are established and a few questions are asked to channel the reader’s thinking.  Life applications can, presumably, be extracted from the text of the study guide.  But we usually find only vague allusions to what Christians really believe and why we believe it.  Core beliefs of Christianity are mysteriously concealed even in New Testament material.

Also concealed is the apocalyptic theme that God is battling Satan for all creation and the souls of all mankind.  Finally, well known historic internal contention within the Christian community is always missing.  This includes: Wesleyan/Arminian Theology vs. Reformed Theology; abortion as a human right vs. abortion as murder; LGBTQ as a human right vs. LGBTQ as sin; Progressive Christianity as truth vs. Progressive Christianity as lie; creation days that are 24 hours long vs. creation days that are indefinite periods of time.  These and a plethora of other divisive issues are always absent from any study guide.  Consequently, Christians are unprepared to deal with reality and, in the midst of the great struggle between good and evil, they are ill prepared to defend their faith.  The ‘belt of truth’ is not buckled securely around their waist.  Their ‘shield of faith’ collapses as they try to ‘give a reason for the hope that is in them.’  They go into battle against that evil called sin, residing in the soul of man, without donning the ‘full armor of God!’


This website can be used as a resource for overcoming the deficiencies of Bible Study literature.  Features that make it unique include:


  • Each Section of Theology Corner and each Chapter of Christian Handbook of Reason and Insight for Scientists and Technologists asks a specific question and then answers that question.


  • Theology Corner is a work in progress with 229 self-contained, stand-alone Sections or Chapters.  Each Section represents a distillation and integration of important ideas set forth by iconic Christian teachers.  A common thread throughout is the great, ongoing war between good and evil with Christians standing side by side with Jesus Christ.


  • Because the Sections of Theology Corner are self-contained and stand-alone – contain all necessary and sufficient information --  the student does not have to jump from Section to Section to complete an analysis.


  • The Sections of Theology Corner are crosslinked for ease of reference.


  • The Christian Apologetics portion of this website encourages readers to disprove claims and arguments… if they can!


  • The entire website encourages readers to understand and embrace the historic Core Beliefs of Christianity.


  • The theological persuasion of this website is Wesleyan/Arminian; no consolation is given to Reformed Theology.  Wesleyan/Arminianism and Calvinism are not two different but equally legitimate roads to the same mountain top.


  • Theology Corner Sections, having common topics, are not all grouped in the same category; this encourages long term retention.


  • Unlike all progressive material and some denominational material, the contents of this website are not tainted by an agenda which seeks to undermine historic Christian doctrine.


  • Contrary to open theism and process theism, this website teaches the exhaustively definite foreknowledge of God.


  • Controversial issues are addressed in Theology Corner such as:


    • Were the Creation Days 24 Hours in Length?
    • Is Christianity Compatible with Positive Tolerance?
    • Did Satan cause all creation to be engulfed by the bondage of evil?
    • How does the creation of Adam and Eve make sense on a planet already teeming with complex life and already characterized by the evil of violence, disease, suffering and death for several hundred million years?
    • Is abortion murder according to the Bible?
    • Is the practice of homosexuality a sin according to the Bible?
    • Can I be saved from eternal damnation by simply inviting Jesus into my heart with no confession of sin, no remorse, and no repentance?
    • Is Reformed Theology the product of Biblical exegesis or the human mind?


If the contents of this website are used for teaching, two questions will eventually rise to the surface.  They can be addressed in the beginning to avoid later distractions. The first question is from the right; it is focused on young earth dogma masquerading as a science problem.  The second question is from the left: it is focused on woke dogma masquerading as freedom of thought.

The first question is: Were the Creation Days 24 Hours in Length?  This question is addressed in Section 14.1 of Theology Corner. The length of a creation day, an annoying conundrum which riles Christians to battle, is not a mystery which science must solve.  It is not an issue of fossil evidence, radiometric dating, dendrochronology, geology, plate tectonics, Hubble’s parameter, the red shift or any other aspect of science.  This conundrum is a purely theological issue focused on the meaning of the Hebrew word yom as used in the first chapter of Genesis.  As expressed so aptly by H. Orton Wiley, “The Hebrew word yom which is translated “day” occurs no less than 1,480 times in the Old Testament, and is translated by something over fifty different words, including such terms as time, life, today, age, forever, continually and perpetually.  With such a flexible use of the original term, it is impossible to either dogmatize or to demand unswerving restriction to one only of those meanings.”  Only in recent history, have some vocal Christians declared the ‘24-hour creation day’ to be a Core Belief of Christianity.  This has created a roadblock for evangelism, discipleship and enlarging the fellowship of believers, in other words, an unnecessary roadblock for the Great Commission.

The second question is: Is Christianity Compatible with Positive Tolerance?  This question is addressed in Section 13.1 of Theology Corner.  The conclusion that "Jesus is God" is a natural consequence of classical logic based on the evidence of Scripture, tradition (history) and personal experience. Some in our time fail to be convinced by classical logic because of positive tolerance, a concept taught in many educational institutions and through the media. Positive tolerance is a construction of Hegelian dialectic reasoning in which we synthesize that both a theses and its antithesis are true. In other words, (a is b) is true and (a is-not b) is true; (Jesus is God) is true and (Jesus is-not God) is true. This means every individual's beliefs, values, lifestyle and truth claims are equally valid. Not only does everyone have an equal right to his beliefs but all beliefs are equally true. I may believe (Jesus is God) but I must also believe (Allah is God), (Buddha is God), (Brahman is God) and (God is a fictitious being). The concept of positive tolerance is incompatible with logic and reason. One of God's attributes is absolute truth; positive tolerance is absolute lie.


Primary Documents Consulted During Preparation of this Website


Abdul-Hameed, M. and Al-Kufi, “Use the Singular Value Decomposition in the Text Encryption with Encryption Key as Real Number.”  International Journal of Innovative Research in Computer and Communication Engineering.  Vol 4, Issue 2, 2016.

Acton, J.K., “A Powerful Joy,” Desert Call Ministries, San Diego, 2008.

Ali, Maulana Muhammad, “Muhammad and Christ,” A. A. Isha’at Islam Lahore, Columbus, Ohio, 1993.

Ashraf, A., “Efficient Arnold and Singular Value Decomposition based on Chaotic Image Encryption.”  International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications. Vol 10, No. 3, 2019.

Athanasius, “On the Incarnation,” St. Vladimir’s Seminary Press, Crestwood, NY, 2000.

Banks, J.G., “Healing Everywhere,” International Order of St. Luke the Physician, 2001.

Barrow, John, “The Constants of Nature: From Alpha to Omega--the Numbers That Encode the Deepest Secrets of the Universe,” London. Vintage, 2002.

Berkhof, L., “Systematic Theology,” Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, 1941.

Bertius, P., “The Life and Death of James Arminius and Simon Episcopius, Professors of Divinity in the University of Leyden in Holland,” Ratcliff and Thompson, London, 1672.

Bondi, Hermann, “Cosmology,” University Press, Cambridge, 1961.

Boyd, G. A., “Satan and the Problem of Evil; Constructing a Trinitarian Warfare Theodicy,” Intervarsity Press, Downers Grove, 2001.

Brady, R. H., "Dogma and Doubt," Biol. J. Linnean Soc., Vol. 17, 1982.

Buswell, J. O., “A Systematic Theology of the Christian Religion,” Zondervan, Grand Rapids, 1962.

Calder, F., “Memoirs of Simon Episcopius,” T. Mason and G. Lane, New York, 1837.

Carter, C.W., “The Person & Ministry of The Holy Spirit,” Schmul Publishing, Salem 1983.

Chadwick, H., “The Early Church,” Dorset Press, New York, 1986.

Chafer, L. S., “Systematic Theology,” Vol. I and II, Victor Books, Wheaton, 1984.

Chambers, Oswald, “My Utmost for His Highest,” Barbour and Company, Uhrichsville, 1935.

Clark, A., “Adam Clark’s Commentary on the Bible,” World Publishing, Grand Rapids, 1967.

Clark, A., “Entire Sanctification,” Pentecostal Publishing, Louisville.

Colaw, E. S., “Beliefs of a United Methodist Christian,” Discipleship Resources, Nashville, 1987.

Colson, C. and Pearcey N., “How Now Shall We Live?” Tyndale House, Wheaton, 1999.

Drosnin, Michael, “The Bible Code,” Touchstone, New York, 1998.

Drury, K., “Holiness for Ordinary People,” Wesleyan Publishing, Indianapolis, 1994.

Eichten, Estia, “The Higgs Boson and Naturalness.” SDU Odense Denmark. Fermilab - Origin of Mass Conference CP3 Origins, 2013.

Flavius Josephus, “Complete Works,” Kregel Pub., Grand Rapids, 1981.

Forest, Jim, “The Ladder of the Beatitudes,” Orbis Books, Maryknoll, NY, 1999.

Geisler, N. L. and Nix, W. E., “From God to Us,” Moody Press, Chicago,1974.

Glynn, Patrick, “GOD The Evidence,” Prima Publishing, Rocklin CA, 1997.

Graham, Billy, “Approaching Hoofbeats,” Word Books, Waco, 1983.

Graham, Billy, “The Secret of Happiness,” Word Publishing, Dallas, 1985.

Grider, J. K., “A Wesleyan Holiness Theology,” Beacon Hill Press, Kansas City, 1994.

Hawking, S. W., "The Anisotropy of the Universe at Large Times," in Confrontation of Cosmological Theories with Observational Data, ed. M. S. Longair, Int. Astr. Union, 1974.

Heading, J., “Matrix Theory for Physicists,” Longmans, Green and Co., London, 1958.

Hodge, C., “Systematic Theology,” Vol. I, II and III, Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, 1986.

Hoyle, Fred, “The Intelligent Universe,” Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, 1983.

International Order of St. Luke the Physician, “The Healing Ministry of Jesus,” 2008.

Jastrow, R., “God and the Astronomers,” W.W. Norton & Company, New York, 1978.

Jewish Publication Society, “JPS Hebrew English Tanakh,” JPS, Philadelphia, 1999.

Kaiser, W. C., Davids, P. H., Bruce, F. F. and Brauch, M. T., “Hard Sayings of the Bible,” Intervarsity Press, Downers Grove, 1996.

Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, Hans V. et.al., “Evidence for Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay.” Modern Physics Letters A. Vol 16. No.37, 2001.

Lee, Luther, “Elements of Theology,” Forgotten Books, New York, 1856.

Lewis, C. S, “Mere Christianity,” MacMillan, New York, 1960.

Lewis, Jack P., “The English Bible From KJV to NIV,” Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, 1982.

MacArthur, John, “Body Dynamics,” Victor Books, Wheaton, 1982.

Martin, W., “Martin Speaks Out on the Cults,” Vision House, Ventura, 1983.

Martin, W., “Walter Martin’s Cults Reference Bible,” Vision House, Santa Ana, 1981.

Martucci, Stephen, "Symmetric convolution and the discrete sine and cosine transforms." IEEE Trans. Signal Process. SP-42, 1994.

McDowell, J., “More Than a Carpenter,” Living Books, Tyndale House, Wheaton, 1977.

Metzger, B. M. and Coogan, M. D., “The Oxford Companion to the Bible,” Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1993.

Miley, John, “Systematic Theology,” Vol. I and II, Pranava Books, India, 1892.

Neidhardt, W. J., "The Anthropic Principle: A Religious Response," J. American Sci. Affiliation, Vol. 36, No. 4, December, 1984.

“New American Standard Bible,” Thomas Nelson Publishers, Nashville, 1985.

“New International Version,” Zondervan, Grand Rapids, 1985.

Oden, T. C., “Systematic Theology,” Vol. I, II and III, Prince Press, Peabody, 1998.

Oswalt, J. N., “Called to be Holy,” Evangel Publishing, Nappanee IN, 1999.

Pagels, E., “The Gnostic Gospels,” Vintage Books, Random House, New York, 1981.

Parker, Richard H.; Yu, Chenghui; Zhong, Weicheng; Estey, Brian; Müller, Holger, "Measurement of the fine-structure constant as a test of the Standard Model." Science. 360 (6385), 2018.

Pope, W. B., “A Compendium of Christian Theology,” Vol. 1, 2 and 3, Forgotten Books, London, 1879.

Purkiser, W.T., “Exploring Our Christian Faith,” Beacon Hill Press, Kansas City, 1978.

Rees, Martin, “Just Six Numbers,” Basic Books, New York, 1999.

Rice, John R., “Some Serious, Popular FALSE DOCTRINES Answered from the Scriptures,” Sword of the Lord, Murfreesboro, 1970.

Rohlf, James William, “Modern Physics from a to Z0,” Wiley, 1994.

Satinover, Jeffrey, “Cracking the Bible Code,” William Morrow, New York, 1998.

Schaeffer, F. A., “The Complete Works of Francis A. Schaeffer,” Vol. 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, Crossway Books, Westchester, 1986.

Schaeffer, F.A. and Koop, C.E., “Whatever Happened to the Human Race?” Fleming H. Revell, Old Tappan, 1979.

Shedd, W., "Dogmatic Theology," Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1888-94.

Sproul, R. C., “Willing to Believe,” Baker Books, Grand Rapids, 1997.

Staniforth, M., “Early Christian Writings – The Apostolic Fathers,” Dorset Press, New York, 1986.

Strong, James, “The Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible,” World Bible Publishers, Iowa Falls.

Taylor, R.S., “A Right Conception of Sin,” Beacon Hill Press, Kansas City, 1945.

Thaxton, C. B., Bradley, W. L. and Olsen, R. L., “The Mystery of Life's Origin: Reassessing Current Theories,” Philosophical Library, New York, 1984.

Torrey, R.A., “How to Pray,” Moody Press, Chicago, 1988.

Turner, G.A., “Christian  Holiness,” Beacon Hill Press, Kansas City, 1977.

Wakefield, Samuel, “Christian Theology: A Concise, Comprehensive, and Systematic View of the Evidences, Doctrines, Morals, and Institutions of Christianity,” Carlton and Porter, 1862.

Watson, Richard, “Theological Institutes,” Vol. 1, 2 and 3, Forgotten Books, London, 1823.

Weisskopf, V. F., "The Origin of the Universe," American Scientist, Sept-Oct 1983.

Wesley, John, "Sermons," Available on Web.

Wesley, John, "Works," Multiple Sources.

Wheeler, J. A., "The Universe as a Home for Man," American Scientist, Nov-Dec 1974.

Wiley, H.O., “Christian Theology,” Vol. I, II and III, Beacon Hill Press, Kansas City, 1940.

Williamson, G.A., “The History of the Church,” Dorset Press, New York, 1984.

Wolfram, Stephen, “A New Kind of Science.” 100 Trade Center Drive. Champaign, IL. Wolfram Media Inc., 2002.

Womble, D.D., “Wilt Thou be Made Whole,” Democrat Printing & Lithographing Co., Little Rock, 1986.

Wynkoop, M. B., “Foundations of Wesleyan-Arminian Theology”, Beacon Hill Press, Kansas City, 1967.

Yockey, H. P., "A Calculation of the Probability of Spontaneous Biogenesis by Information Theory," J. Theor. Biol., Vol. 67, 1977.

Zhang, G. and Hu, S., “Characteristic Polynomial and Higher Order Traces of Third Order Three Dimensional Tensors.” Front. Math. China, 14(1), 2019.